Thin film circuits are typically constructed on ceramic or crystalline substrates. Specific thin film substrate materials are chosen to optimize performance in their application, and usually focus on specific properties like dielectric constant, loss tangent, thermal conductivity, surface finish, flatness, etc. Metals other than gold can also be deposited in order to provide solderability, resistors, or solder damming. Thin film metallizations work very well for high performance wire bonding, soldering, and epoxy attachment methods.
Thin film circuits are machined to size by using dicing (diamond sawing) or laser machining.